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Thiamine hydrochloride injection is effective for the treatment of thiamine deficiency or beriberi whether of the dry (major symptoms related to the nervous system) or wet (major symptoms related to the cardiovascular system) variety. Thiamine hydrochloride injection should be used where rapid restoration of thiamine is necessary, as in Wernicke's encephalopathy, infantile beriberi with acute collapse, cardiovascular disease due to thiamine deficiency, or neuritis of pregnancy if vomiting is severe. It is also indicated when giving IV dextrose to individuals with marginal thiamine status to avoid precipitation of heart failure.
Thiamine hydrochloride injection is also indicated in patients with established thiamine deficiency who cannot take thiamine orally due to coexisting severe anorexia, nausea, vomiting, or malabsorption. Thiamine hydrochloride injection is not usually indicated for conditions of decreased oral intake or decreased gastrointestinal absorption, because multiple vitamins should usually be given.